A project implemented on the district of Kubu, Karangasem and island of Nusa Penida, Bali Province. These are the poorest districts in Bali in cooperation with ICCO, The Netherlands. The population of these districts lives is below poverty line.
Poverty, among others, often triggers tension and conflict between religion and ethnicity, and violence against women. Although belongs to the province of Bali, but nothing compared to the economy of other districts on Bali. The project status to be implemented in Kubu district, Karangasem Regency is a new project, and not the prolongation of the former existing project. Whereas the project to be implemented in Nusa Penida is the existency of the former project for consolidation stage of intervention.
Developments in Bali have been positively influenced by its location close to Java, the economic and political centre of Indonesia. To that should be added Bali’s unique potential as a tourist area and its strategic location for the development of East Indonesia. So far, Bali could indeed be seen as an island of peace and harmony within the turmoil on Indonesia’s political and economic scene.
However, things are changing and by far not every district is benefiting from the Island’s general development. Not only has the tragedy of September 11, 2001 with its aftermath clearly affected the tourist sector and led to a drastic reduction in the number of visitors after the first and second bomb blasts. Bali is also paying a high price for its increasing prosperity. Its enormous economic potential has attracted many outside unemployed and investors from outside Bali caused crisis and by political uncertainty (unsecured) reasons in Java. Influential outside unemployed or job seekers from outside Bali, entrepreneurs and outside capital have to an important extent taken over the control over the Balinese economy. The economic crisis on Indonesia has further led to a considerable migration of poor and jobless Javanese and a subsequent pressure on the labour market and increase of insecurity.
Indonesia has a well established tradition of development plans that are formulated at the national, provincial and district level. These plans are implemented by an important number of government departments. The quality of these departments varies heavily. In general it is low in the more remote areas of Indonesia because of a lack of qualified human resources. The lack of motivation and an important level of corruption further decrease their performance as do the effects of the 1997 economic and financial (and subsequently political) crisis which are felt till to date.
Poverty, among others, often triggers tension and conflict between different religions and tribes, and violence against women in the household.
The project will be implemented in the poorest districts on the eastern-part of Bali.
More specifically, the project will be implemented in the district of Kubu, Karangasem regency, which lies in the east of the island of Bali, and in the Island of Nusa Penida. The population is still lives below the poverty line.
Both district having almost the same climatic characteristics. The climatic and topographic conditions in the districts are very dry (42 days of rainfall only; dry season of six months) and unfertile area. It is a hilly area and land degradation has become widespread because of intensive cultivation and poorly adapted agricultural practices. Water is very scarce in the dry season.
Social services (education, health, drinking water) are of low quality and in some cases still unavailable. There is, for instance, no hospital in the District, and limited doctors to serve people. Nearly 70 % of the population is illiterate or has only finished primary school. Women are less educated than men.
The dry and non fertile geographic condition of Kubu District, Karangasem Regency, Bali, and the lower educational level, and also the lack of employment sector have spread the poverty in the said area. The lower educational level and skill posessed also cause people is less competable to obtain the job outside the region. This condition is worsened by the location of several isolated villages to cause the deficiency of various basic needs, such as fresh water, healthy food, and appropriate education.
The main living of Kubu people, Karangasem is mainly in agriculture and animal husbandry. They usually cultivate the seasonal plants, such as legumes, cassava, corn, etc. for their agriculture. The harvest of these kind of plants are not optimal due to the relative dry geographical condition, stony and sandy land, and less water supply, mainly in dry season. In animal husbandry sector, people breed chickens, cows, sheeps, and pigs in small scale. In addition, people also produce sugar palm & tuak (fermented palm wine). People usually sell their cattle each year to pay the tax and to meet their daily living. Their dependency on that sector cause the relative lower income. This influence the inappropriate housing construction, no personal and environmental health consideration, and non-affordable education.
Karangasem regency is the only regency in Bali included as underdeveloped or poor regency. One of districts occupies the coastal area and included as a poor area is Kubu district. Kubu district occupies 234.72 km2, divided into 9 villages, namely Ban, Dukuh, Kubu, Tulamben, Baturinggit, Sukadana, Tianyar Timur,Tianyar Tengah and Tianyar Barat. Out of the said 9 villages, 7 of hem (except Ban and Dukuh) are coastal villages a long approximately 24.4 km length. Total population in Kubu district is recorded of 67,559 people, namely 33,731 male and 33,828 female. According to the government data, out of the said total population, Kubu district has a total Rumah Tangga Miskin (RTM = poor household) of 7,833 Heads of Familiy, or 27,762 population. Total RTM in Karangasem district from the highest educational level of their heads of family is SD/MI (Elementary School), and Kubu District is the highest, namely of 7,646 RTM (20.71%). Moreover, there is still possibility that the actual RTM is higher than 20.71% since the local government tends to decrease the local poverty rate, and to increase the advanced rate.
Both, Kubu district and Nusa Penida belongs administratively to Bali province, but lags considerably behind as far as its development is concerned. It has not the same ecological richness as most districts on Bali-land and, hence, has not benefited from the tourist development on the main island. Contrary to other districts on Bali, Kubu district and Nusa Penida are dry (42 days of rainfall only; dry season of six months) and unfertile area. Nusa Penida is a hilly island where irrigation is not possible and land degradation has become widespread because of intensive cultivation and poorly adapted agricultural practices. No irrigation exists and water is very scarce in the dry season. The lack of economic perspectives has led to considerable migration to Bali and other parts of Indonesia.
Optional opportunities towards those issues encountered in critical land and coastal areas:
(1) to improve the agricultural product processing and also sugar palm and tuak (fermented palm wine) production, as currently produced by the local people. The other prospective market opportunities of agricultural product processing are peanuts, cashew nuts, and also lontar (palmyra palm) leaves production as the raw material for plaiting handicrafts and literary production;
(2) to improve the importance of business opportunity of cash crops (vegetables, mangoes, oranges, other fruits, coconuts, candle nuts, cashew nuts) and of good market opportunity production, such as vegetables, fruits;
(3) to develop the significantly potential cattle and pig breeding on critical land both on inland hilly- and coastal-areas, provided that it is accompanied with the development of qualified forage production to support the said activities;
(4) to develop women’s important role in home industry and handicraft sectors. Women activities on critical land and coastal areas that not directly related to land ownership may be developed to increase their income sources. (1) One of handicraft sectors, for example, the traditional hand woven may be developed through craftswoman groups. The more qualified and large quantities raw material purchasing for group members will be cheaper and more effective than individual purchasing in a small quantity. The designs may be more variably developed to meet the market trend, product allocation (souvenirs, functional goods, accessories), and proper location (housing, offices, hotels, shops). Quality control improvement to allow products’ competitive power should also be conducted. (2) The other prospective home industries which refer to business opportunities developed in critical land and coastal areas are to increase women’s income and also their roles in economic sector, namely of sea product processing and salt production.
In view of the above problems, the project in Kubu district on Karangasem regency and Nusa Penida Island will concentrate on:
• Introducing the appropriate measures for a more sustainable farming system in input supply (seeds for appropriate, good quality plants), for possibly practicing organic system plant disease prevention, and for good quality and market price output;
• Economic diversification by the development of new activities in social forestry field, animal production, home industries and trading. These activities should also provide opportunities to women to engage in economic undertakings and improve their position;
• Improving marketing of marine products and agro business processing products;
• Capacity building at target group level (formation and support of self-help groups);
• Improving the position and role of coastal women by involving them in economic activities, especially in home industries of sea and agricultural product processing, salt production, handicrafts including the hand-woven.
Project beneficiaries will consist of:
Individuals or groups of the poor with potential background for community based economic development activities in rural areas, having income below the regional minimum rate, and periodically face difficulties to fulfil their basic needs . Their basic interest is to achieve a decent standard of living through the provision of basic services and better existing natural resources utilization. Groups to be involved in this project are: farmers, fishermen, and women. Based on the interest of their members, the groups may serve as a pre-cooperation, with changeable status in the future to become the real cooperation. Small enterprises (SEs) development intervention or entrepreneurship intervention will be applied to train and customize people in running their businesses. At least 90 % of the project beneficiaries chosen are having income below the provincial average, at the start of the project support, and at least 40 % of them will be women.
Around 900 beneficiaries (men and women) will be directly involved in the project. The beneficiaries will be organized in self-help groups in rural areas, namely: farmers, fishermen, trader, and crafts.
The involvement of the target group in the different project phases
The project beneficiaries will be involved in almost all stages of the project:
• Project planning and design.
• Project start up.
• The implementation phase
• Monitoring and evaluation
Expected Outcome and Impact
The project wants to contribute to the following goals (overall objectives):
• An increase income of target groups;
• Increased role of women in economic activities;
• An improvement of the socio-economic position of its target groups and hence, a reduction of the economic intra- and inter-regional imbalances;
• An increase of rewarding employment opportunities;
• The creation and strengthening of autonomous target group organisations that are able to effectively promote and defend the rights of their members and to perpetuate the development momentum created by the project;
• To create and protect better environment that can support sustainable development through it’s agriculture and micro/small enterprises activities.
The project approach start from the principles of partnership and self-initiative, and use an interactive approach. Interested parties have to contact the project first. The project approach focuses in first instance on group formation. In areas with a low development level, groups are indeed considered as the most appropriate medium for the introduction of change. Intensive training and awareness raising allow the group members to analyse their situation, detect their own weaknesses and potential and define measures for improvement. Technical training courses supplement their skills. Groups are then intensively followed up; progress and constraints are regularly monitored and corrective measures identified. Other parties (government services, universities, private sector, etc.) are included in the process where relevant.
The project will be entirely implemented by local staff. Most of them dispose of extensive experience in these fields, among others via the implementation of past projects.
Hereafter we present the key activities of the project, provide some technical details on some selected activities and give some indications on the sequence of their implementation.
The key activities of the project centre in first instance around the capacity building of the target group in different ways. Major activities are undertaken to increase the knowledge and skills at both the individual and group level so that they are better prepared to defend their interests in an increasingly competitive environment. Capacity building is reached through well elaborated training activities and by regular on site consultation, guidance and monitoring. Exchange visits and leadership training further enforce this process. In line with the recommendations of the recently conducted evaluations, the project will use an approach that goes beyond the functional level and will support the groups to take up a broader role as village level development institutions.
Training activities of both individual entrepreneurs and members of self-help groups are crucial to the project’s success. The training approach and follow-up will be extensively described under next point below. The following training courses will be organised:
Most training courses will be provided by DPF staffs who have gained experience in this regard; they will be complemented by external resource persons (for instance entrepreneurs) who can bring in experience DPF staff cannot dispose of. The internal training workshops will be conducted by external trainers.
Technical Activities in Kubu District:
Technical Activities in Nusa Penida Island: